The Calculation and Analysis of Ecological Footprints of Gansu Province
【摘要】 可持续发展定量测度的核心是确定人类是否生存于生态系统的承载力范围之内。 M.Wackernagel等 1 996年以来提出和发展的生态足迹方法 ,就是一种定量测量人类对自然利用程度的新方法。该方法通过将区域的资源和能源消费转化为提供这种物质流所必须的各种生物生产土地的面积 (生态足迹需求 ) ,并同区域能提供的生物生产型土地面积 (生态承载力或生态足迹供给 )进行比较 ,能定量判断一个区域的发展是否处于生态承载能力的范围内。介绍了生态足迹的概念、生态足迹计算模型、生态足迹模型中使用的生物生产面积类型及其状况。另外 ,简要介绍了当前国际研究的进展情况 ,分析总结了生态足迹模型的优缺点。对甘肃省 1 998年的生态足迹进行了实证计算和分析 ,结果表明甘肃省 1 998年人均生态赤字为 0 .564hm2 。
【Abstract】 Because humans consume the products and services of nature, every one of us has an impact on the earth. Does the human load stay within global carrying capacity? The ecological footprint concept has been designed to answer this question and estimate man’s impact on nature. The ecological footprint of any defined population (from a single individual to a whole city or country) is the total area of ecologically productive land and water occupied exclusively to produce all the resources consumed and to assimilate all the wastes generated by population. The ecological footprint method presents a simple framework for national natural capital accounting. The concept of ecological footprint and its calculation method is introduced in this paper. The paper also analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the ecological footprint model, and addresses the types of ecologically productive lands. The article calculates and analyses the ecological footprint of Gansu province in 1998. The ecological footprint ledger is composed of three main section. The first ledger is basic biotic resources consumption including its byproducts, the second is energy consumption, the third is trade balance. Trade balance through more detailed trade flow analyses can mitigate the influence of import and export product on consumption variations. Based on the ecological footprint concept and analysis framework, human consumption can be compared with regional level natural capital production using existing data. In the case of Gansu province, the ecological deficit of Gansu is 0 564 2 hm 2 per capita. Simplification of calculation methodology to certain extent results in over optimistic estimates. Finally, the ecological footprint model’s advantages and disadvantages are identified. Ecological footprint index is an excellent aggregate index that connects many issues of sustainability, development and equity. The model can reveal the extent to which local carrying capacity has been exceeded and allows a cumulative approach to impact analysis. The use of ecological productive area as a numeraire, rather than money or energy, makes the footprints easy to be understood, and also permits provocative calculations. The limitations of the model is that it doesn’t include several important issues, which are even directly related to land use: land areas lost to biological productivity loss of land because of contamination, erosion and urban “hardening” and dissertation (especially in north western China). Methodologically, the assessments could be more complete by including the ecological spaces used for freshwater use, a particular important issue in arid area of north western China.
【Key words】 ecological footprint； measuring sustainabable development； ecological productive area； Gansu province；
- 【文献出处】 地理学报 ,ACTA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA , 编辑部邮箱 ,2000年05期