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中国与周边国家在资源领域的合作与竞争

Cooperation and Competition between China and Its Neighboring Countriesin the Field of Natural Resources

【作者】 王礼茂方叶兵

【Author】 WANG Li-mao~1, FANG Ye-bing~(1,2)(1.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101,China;2. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China)

【机构】 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 北京 100101北京 100101中国科学院研究生院北京 100039

【摘要】 本文在分别对我国重点资源的供需格局和利用周边国家资源现状的研究后,认为中国与周边国家在资源供需和资源安全上的竞争与合作主要表现在油气资源上。因此,以油气为例,将周边国家分为:高度依赖石油的国家或地区,石油供需平衡或少量进出口的国家或地区和大量出口石油的国家和地区三种类型。认为对中国利用境外资源构成挑战的国家便是第一种类型的国家。彼此的竞争主要在油气管线走向、境外开采权、油气运输线安全保障等领域。但是双方有共同的利益和合作的基础,如可以在战略石油储备的运营和管理,能源效益的改善,打击恐怖主义对石油运输通道的袭击等方面进行合作。

【Abstract】 Resources deficiency is one of the fundamental situations in China, which will influence economic growth and social development of China. This paper analyzes cooperation and competition between China and its neighboring countries in the field of natural resources. After study on supply & demand situation of primary resources (such as petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, manganese, copper, log) in China and its neighboring countries, the authors argue that the relations between China and its neighboring countries is not only competition but also cooperation. The author takes oil as an example and classifies China’s neighboring countries into three categories: the first category of the countries depends deeply on foreign petroleum, such as Japan, Korea and India. The second category includes the countries whose oil production can meet their own demand approximately, and the third category covers the countries that can export oil to the outside market. Only the countries with first category could challenge China in utilization of resources of neighboring countries. There is no reason to consider, however, that relations between China and such neighboring countries are like a "zero-sum" game. The four countries are the major petroleum consumption countries in the world and under the pressure of great demand for petroleum. According to the data of BP statistical review of world energy, petroleum consumptions of the four countries and region, including Hong Kong SAR, are one-fifth of the world average in 2003, Therefore, they should devote themselves to strengthening energy cooperation in such domain as restraining petroleum price fluctuation, exchanging successful experience in establishing strategy petroleum reserve and improving energy efficiency, as well as in ensuring major oil transport corridor security like strait of Malaga, and so on. It is pointed out that China and its neighboring countries have much more common interests than divergent views in resources security. Moreover, most important things that should be done include establishment of a dialogue mechanism in energy security to avoid hostility and mutual inhibition competition, especially in exploration of oil and natural gas in Russian and Central Asian.

【关键词】 周边国家资源安全竞争合作
【Key words】 Neighboring countriesResources securityCompetitionCooperation
【基金】 国家自然科学基金项目"非传统安全与中国石油安全态势评估"(编号:70473103);中国科学院知识创新重大项目(KZCX1 SW 01 18)。
  • 【分类号】F426.22
  • 【下载频次】394
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