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并网型风力发电系统建模及其网络化控制方法研究

Modeling of Wind Turbines of Integration Type and Its Networked Control Method Research

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【作者】 邱越

【导师】 张化光

【作者基本信息】 东北大学, 控制理论与控制工程, 2011, 硕士

【摘要】 随着世界环境危机、能源危机的日益加剧,世界各国对于节能减排和低碳环保的大力倡导,作为可再生绿色能源的风能成为世界各国普遍重视的能源,风力发电技术也成为各国学者竞相研究的热点。风力发电技术是涉及空气动力学、自动控制等多学科的交叉研究领域。目前在该领域,研究难点和热点集中在风电的并网、低电压穿越、风电先进控制策略及优化技术等方面。风力发电方面技术的进步,必将带动信息、能源、机械、材料、电力等领域的技术发展与创新,创造可观的经济效益与社会效益,有效减少环境污染与碳排放,促进社会的可持续发展。并网型风力发电系统可以更有效地利用风能,将电网结构薄弱却风能资源丰富区域的风能转化为电能输送到电能需求量大而风能资源贫乏的区域。本文主要从以下几个方面对并网型风力发电系统进行了研究。1.建立了风机的空气动力学模型。基于叶素动量法对风机的桨叶部分进行空气动力学建模,通过建立的桨叶空气动力学模型,从机理上阐述了风机失速控制的原理。根据风速的统计学数据,建立了风速的模型,为风电系统相关部分的设计仿真提供了依据。建立了风机传动系统的模型,针对不同的研究重点,分别建立了风机传动系统的刚性模型与柔性模型。2.建立了风机的电磁学模型。通过对目前广泛用于并网型风机中的双馈感应电机进行分析,建立了双馈感应电机的电压、磁链在三相静止坐标系和同步旋转坐标系下的模型。根据双馈感应电机的特点,对双馈感应电机的磁链进行定向,简化了双馈感应电机的电磁学模型。建立了双馈感应电机并网接口—双向PWM变频器的动态模型,相对于其他文献所建立的模型,本文所建立的模型考虑了直流环节的动态特性。3.针对现代风电渗透率逐渐增大,风电在电力系统功率调节方面起着越来越积极作用的特点,创新性地提出将网络化控制系统引入现代风电并网运行控制与调度中,建立了风电并网运行的网络化控制系统模型。针对电网需要风电场运行于向下功率调节模式以限制风电的注入功率这一运行状况,设计了针对网络诱导时延具有时变、不确定、有上界特点的网络化鲁棒控制器,通过求解线性矩阵不等式获取网络化鲁棒控制器。通过数值仿真验证了所设计鲁棒控制器的有效性。4.通过对风电并网过程的网络模型分析,建立了考虑负荷模型在内的风电并网模型。从电力系统稳定性的角度出发,通过对所建立的风电并网模型的分析,指出当风电向电网注入功率在某一范围内时电力系统会产生混沌现象,必须对并网过程中的混沌现象进行抑制。由于风电并网模型具有非线性、强耦合不便于设计控制策略对混沌现象进行抑制和模糊双曲正切模型具有万能逼近性的特点,本文创新性地提出利用模糊双曲正切模型去逼近风电并网模型以简化控制系统的分析与综合。根据系统辨识结果得到模糊双曲正切模型,基于智能控制理论设计控制器对系统混沌现象进行抑制,获得了风电并网过程保证电网稳定时风电向电网注入功率的范围,具有较大的实际价值。通过数值仿真,验证了所设计控制器的有效性。

【Abstract】 As energy and environment crisis is becoming increasingly serious, energy saving and low-carbon are advocated worldwide. As renewable green energy, wind power is drawing growing attention and research enthusiasm from scientists and engineers all over the world.Wind generation is a comprehensive research area that involves aerodynamics, automatic control, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, computer science and material science, etc. Nowadays, the research focus concentrates on large-scale wind turbines design, wind generation integration, low voltage ride through, advanced control scheme and optimization algorithms design of wind turbines. Progress in wind energy will have a significant promotion in development and innovation of information technology, energy, mechanical engineering, material science and power system, bringing economic and social profits for human beings and reducing carbon emission. Wind generation of integration type has its own advantage. It can transform wind energy to electric power and transfer electric power form the area that is has abundant wind energy to the area that of high demand of electric power. This thesis focused on wind generation of integration type and did research on the below aspects.1. The aerodynamic model of wind turbines was built. First, blade model was built based on blade element momentum theory, wind turbines stall phenomenon was explained by the model acquired. Second, wind speed model was got by utilizing statistical data, which brings convenience to simulation of wind turbines design. Finally, rigid and flexible transmission system model were derived that suited to different research focus.2. Electromagnetic model of wind turbines was built. The widely used doubly-fed induction generator was chosen as generator of wind turbines. To begin with, voltage and flux model of doubly-fed induction generator in three phase static framework and two phase synchronous framework were derived. With regard to the characteristic of doubly-fed induction generator, model acquired can be simplified via flux orientation. Furthermore, model of integration interface—bidirectional PWM converter was built. Compared with integration interface model in other literature, this thesis took dynamic behavior of DC section into account, which is an improvement.3. For high penetration of wind generation to modern power grid, wind generation played growing important role in power grid regulation. Aiming at this situation, this thesis put up with networked control method in wind integration operation of control and regulation originally. Networked model of wind generation is derived. For the down power regulation circumstance that power grid limited output of wind generation, networked robust controller was designed when the network induced delay is time-varying, uncertain and upper-bounded. The robust controller can be got via solving LMIs by Matlab. Effectiveness of the robust controlled was verified through numerical simulation.4. Integration model that took load model into account was built by analyzing the network of wind generation integration. From power system stability perspective, chaotic phenomenon which should be avoided in power system, was discovered when the injection power of wind generation was in a special region. The chaotic phenomenon in power system should be suppressed. However, as the integration model is strong coupling and nonlinear, it is difficult to design control law to control the complex nonlinear chaotic system. Meanwhile, as universal approximation precision of fuzzy hyperbolic model, this thesis used fuzzy hyperbolic model to approximate the complex chaotic integration system originally to simplify controller analysis and synthesis. Thus, control scheme can be designed based on intelligent control theory via system identification. The power injection of wind generation to ensure the power grid to operate safe and stable was derived, which was of practical value. Numerical simulation verified the designed control scheme.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北大学
  • 【网络出版年期】2014年 07期
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