The Emergence of the Nomadic Regime in the North of the Gobi Desert during the 10th and 11th Century:The Kingdom of the Toquz Tatar in the Yenisei Inscriptions
【摘要】 九姓达靼是十至十一世纪占据蒙古高原中心地域的游牧部落联盟,其名称出现于叶尼塞碑铭中的哈尔毕斯·巴里碑铭。其中,九姓达靼之后的文字,可读作lkaB,相关文句可复原为toquz tatar elik bardm(我去了九姓达靼王国)。通过对哈尔毕斯·巴里碑铭、Elegest1(E10)碑铭、Begre(E11)碑铭氏族印记的对比分析,结合Begre碑铭中出使中国的记录,哈尔毕斯·巴里碑铭纪年应是十世纪。而回鹘文献中部落名称之后的"el"(国)的用法,以及汉籍达靼人的称号,表明当时的九姓达靼是一王国。汉籍记录十世纪时期以国王、天王娘子、宰相名义朝贡宋朝的达靼国,并非"河西达靼",而是九姓达靼。十世纪时期的九姓达靼,堪称"九姓达靼王国"。漠北草原游牧政权的传统,在黠戛斯退出漠北之后并未间断。成吉思汗创建的大蒙古国,应是继承了九姓达靼王国的政权传统。
【Abstract】 The Toquz tatar("Nine Tatars") was a nomadic federation of nine tribes which occupied the Mongolian plateau’s central region during the 10th and 11th century.The term Toquz Tatar appeared in Herbis-baary(E59) of the Yenisei inscriptions,however the characters immediately following the term had not yet been interpreted.They should be transcribed as "lkaB" and the whole phrasing can be reconstructed as "Toquz tata elik bardm"(I went to the Kingdom of the Nine Tatars).By a comparative analysis based on the tamgha(tribal emblem)recorded in the Herbis-baary,Elegest 1(E10) and Begre(E11) inscriptions,combined with the content of the Begre inscription concerning the mission to China,a conclusion may be drawn that E59 should be dated in the 10th century.The term el(kingdom) following the tribal name in the Old Uyghur document and the relative titles in the Chinese historical record was attributed to be a "kingdom" in a bureaucratic sense.In the Chinese historical record,the Tatar kingdom which paid tributes to the Song Dynasty in the name of its 国王(king),天王娘子(wife of the divine king) and 宰相(grand councilor) in the 10th century was not the Tatar of Hexi,but rather the Toquz Tatar.Therefore,the Toquz Tatar should be thought as having developed into a full fledged kingdom by 10th century.After the Kirghiz exited the Mongolian plateau’s central region,the tradition of the nomadic regime in the north of the Gobi desert did not stop.In a sense,the Mongol Empire set up by Genghis Khan inherited the regime tradition of the Kingdom of the Toquz Tatar.
【Key words】 Toquz Tatar Kingdom； Yenisei inscriptions； king； wife of the divine king； grand councilor.；
- 【文献出处】 民族研究 ,Ethno-National Studies , 编辑部邮箱 ,2013年01期