节点文献

再论祖大寿与“祖家将”

Re-examining Zu Dashou and the Zujiajiang

【作者】 绵贯哲郎

【Author】 WATANUKI Tetsuro;College of Humanities and Sciences,Nihon University;

【机构】 日本大学文理学部

【摘要】 李洵《祖大寿与"祖家将"》一文,发表迄今已近三十年,有关史料和研究环境有很大的变化。文章以从军事家族到汉军旗人的历程为中心,探究晚明祖氏家族的崛起和"祖家将"的形成,以及祖大寿和"祖家将"归附后金(大清)国后编入八旗的情形。通过考察揭示如下:首先,祖氏家族的崛起,追溯到其父祖承训的世代。祖承训参加李成梁的"辽军",得到了卫所武官的身份,开拓祖氏家族的前途。祖大寿以其军籍身份、居住在宁远地方的长处等为基础,形成了"祖家将"。其次,通过大凌河之役和松锦大战,编入八旗后的"祖家将"表面上把将领"均分八家",参与政权中枢及任职八旗高级武官。然而,"祖家将"核心集团,都隶属于皇太极麾下。对皇太极而言,这是在后金(大清)国"八家均分"体制下,提高汗(皇帝)的地位和权势的必要手段。

【Abstract】 It has been almost thirty years since the publication of Li Xun’s Zu Dashou and the Zujiajiang,which led to significant changes in the way historians approach archives and research.This article examines the sudden rise of the Zu clan at the end of the Ming dynasty,the formation of the Zujiajiang,and the process by which Zu Dashou and the Zujiajiang were incorporated into the Eight Banners System at the start of the Qing dynasty.The results of this examination demonstrate that the formation of the Zujiajiang began with theparticipation of Zu Dashou’s father,Zu Chengxun,in the Lijiajiang and his ascendancy to the rank of weisuoguan,followed by Zu Dashou’s inheritance of his father’s military register and the family’s long residency in Ningyuan.Furthermore,the Zujiajiang commanders who were successively incorporated into the Eight Banners System of the Qing dynasty during the Two Battles were ostensibly divided equally among the eight divisions.However,my examination found that the core of the Zu clan remained intact and that it was placed entirely under the command of Hong Taiji(Qing Taizong).Hong Taiji integrated the Zu clan into a force to support his own political command,while also using it as a tool to increase the power of the emperor(the Han).

【关键词】 祖大寿祖家将宁远卫所制汉军旗人
【Key words】 Zu DashouZujiajiangNingyuanWeisuo systemHan Chinese Bannerman
【基金】 国家社会科学基金项目“民族融合视域下清代汉军旗人国家认同研究”(编号:15BZS062)
节点文献中: