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西藏食物保障度分析及对策

On food security situation and countermeasures in Tibet Autonomous Region

【作者】 谷树忠

【Author】 GU Shu zhong(Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,CAS,Beijing 100101,China)

【机构】 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所!北京100101

【摘要】 食物保障是西藏社会性经济可持续发展重要问题之一。分析表明 ,西藏食物保障度及目标因食物种类而异。尽管粮食总产及单产均持续增长 ,但结构性短缺问题难以解决 ,粮食保障不应过分强调自给率目标 ;肉类中羊肉自给 ,但猪肉基本依靠内地 ;蔬菜保障存在生产不稳定问题 ,如何提高生产的稳定性是问题的关键。对居民营养摄入量及结构的分析表明 ,城乡居民食物消费结构及来源结构有较大差异 ,城镇居民食物消费与内地差异不大 ,而乡村居民的食物消费呈现极显著的本地化特征 ;分析还表明 ,城乡居民生活支出中有一半以上用于食物 ,表明收入和生活水平还不高 ,特别要关注低收入居民的食物问题。为此 ,粮食不应继续作为食物保障的重点,重点应在鲜活食物的保障 ;建立包括开放食物流通系统和开放食物生产系统在内的开放的食物保障系统 ;改善交通运输条件、增进食物空间可达性 ,包括增进食物生产资料空间可达性和改善畜产品外销通径 ;增强储备意识和能力 ;保障贫困人口食物供给 ;广辟食物来源。

【Abstract】 Food security is one of the most important issues for socio economic sustainable development in Tibet.It is pointed out that food security situations differ greatly among food types. Grain and meat security is facing structural shortage pro blems;on the other hand,vegetable shortage is the main problem.It is also concluded that food consumption structure and sources are very different between urban and rural residents.It is calculated that more than half of the urban and rural residents’ living expenditure is used for food consumption.It is suggested that Tibet government should take fresh food (including vegetables,milk,meats,and fruits) as the main target in food security strategy.It is also suggested that the local government should establish an open food security system including the open marketing system and production system;should develop transportation system to improve the accessibility of food and productive materials.

【关键词】 西藏食物保障
【Key words】 Tibetfood securitycountermeasures
【基金】 中国科学院重大及特别支持项目!“青藏高原环境变化与区域可持续发展研究”(KZ951 -A1 -204 -05、KZ95T -06)的部分研究成果
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