节点文献

云南思茅亚洲象对栖息地的选择与利用

A Preliminary Study on the Habitat and Behaviors of Asian Elephant ( Elephas maximus )in Simao,Yunnan,China

  • 推荐 CAJ下载
  • PDF下载
  • 不支持迅雷等下载工具,请取消加速工具后下载。

【作者】 张立王宁王宇宁马利超

【Author】 ZHANG Li WANG Ning WANG Yuning MA Lichao (Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering,Ministry of Education,College of Life Sciences,Beijing Normal Univer sity,Beijing,100875)

【机构】 教育部生物多样性与生态工程重点实验室北京师范大学生态研究所北京师范大学生态研究所 北京100875北京100875

【摘要】 以思茅市境内栖居的一个由 5头雌象 (3头成年体 ,1头亚成体 ,1头幼体 )组成的象群为研究对象 ,利用痕迹追踪、样线调查和村庄调查等方法对野生亚洲象的栖息地选择和行为进行了初步研究。在栖息地中共记录到野生高等植物 4 5 7种 ,组成 5种植被类型。旱季象群的活动区域面积是 35 6 7km2 ,该活动区域中有 3个核心活动区 ,面积分别是 3 6 5km2 ,2 79km2 和 3 2 9km2 ,象群对此 3个活动核心区域循环利用 ;在旱季亚洲象经常取食 19种野生植物 ,其中主要取食的有 8种 ,还取食 7种农作物 ,对农作物有一定依赖性 ,这种依赖的程度随着农田周围森林中野生食物丰富程度的增加而降低 ;在季雨林中亚洲象主要取食的植物种类最丰富。雨季象群的活动区域面积是 18 4 2km2 ,该区域中只有 1个核心活动区 ,面积 9 0 8km2 。雨季亚洲象只取食 5种野生植物 ,另取食 5种农作物 ,农作物为其雨季主要食物。研究结果表明 ,思茅地区亚洲象栖息地中的野生食物可能不足 ,人类活动对亚洲象的生存干扰较为严重 ,亚洲象的行为表现出对栖息地内食物条件和人类干扰的适应。建议尽快遏止日益严重的栖息地片断化趋势 ,恢复自然植被并为亚洲象提供充足的野生食物是保护该物种的关键。

【Abstract】 Trace tracking and transects were used in the surveys on the habitat a nd behaviors of Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) during dry and rain season s in Simao, Yunnan of China The transects were made about 2 km each through the e l ephant habitat and collected data on vegetation type, food species, habitat dist urbances, population status, frequency of elephant sightings and other wildlife sightings reported from the area Totally 21 transects and 170 elephan t trace points were tracked from March 2000 to March 2002 All transect loca t ions and villages have been recorded through GPS There were 457 species of wil d plants recorded in 5 different vegetations types in the elephants’ range Behavioral study focused on a herd of fi ve female elephants (3 adults, 1 juvenile and 1 calf) roaming in the area The home range size of the he r d, determined by trace spots during dry season survey, was totally 35 67 km 2, an d with 3 core foraging areas (3 65 km 2, 2 79 km 2 and 3 29 km 2) where prov ided most of the foods resources for the herd The home range size of th e herd determined by trace spots during rain season survey was 18 42 km 2, and with only showed one core foraging area (9 08 km 2DK) There were 19 spec ies of wild plants recorded as the main elephants’ food resource i n the field during the dry season, and 8 of them were majo r elephantDK’s food During the raining season, only 5 wil d p lant species were recorded that were seldom eaten by elephants Mean while, we found the elephants foraged on 7 kinds of local crops during the dry season We also found that wheat, corn and other crops supported nearly 80% the food supplies of the elephants in this pe riod It was indicated that natural food supplies in elephantDK’s habita t in Simao were not enough for them, so that the elephants herd relied on crops t o satisfy their food desires during rain season under the hi gh pressure and threats of human activities in the habitat,the e lephants adapted the environment well towards food resource and hum an disturbance How to prevent the habitat fragmentation, and to restore the or iginal vegetation for providing enough natural food resources will be key tasks to the conservation efforts for the elephants in Simao WT5"HZ

【基金】 美国内政部鱼和野生动物管理局亚洲象保护基金资助项目 ( 982 10 -2 -G13 1 MOD #1) ;国际爱护动物基金会亚洲象项目资助 ( 0 10 -60 0 0 2 2 0 2 8)
  • 【文献出处】 兽类学报 ,Acta Theriologica Sinica , 编辑部邮箱 ,2003年03期
  • 【分类号】Q958
  • 【下载频次】477
节点文献中: 

本文链接的文献网络图示:

本文的引文网络
网页聊天
live chat
在线营销
live chat