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上海城市化过程中人群健康对环境胁迫的响应

Responses of Human Health to Environment Stresses during the Urbanization of Shanghai

【作者】 李丽张浩王祥荣

【Author】 LI Li,ZHANG Hao,WANG Xiang-rong(Department of Environmental Science and Engineering,Fudan University,Shanghai 200433,China)

【机构】 复旦大学环境科学与工程系复旦大学环境科学与工程系 上海200433上海200433

【摘要】 对上海1990年至1999年城市转型期间全市、城区以及郊县居民的主要疾病死亡率进行分析,构造一个衡量城区居民和郊县居民人群健康对不同环境胁迫的响应指标“主要疾病相对死亡比”(RMR).结果表明循环系病、肿瘤、呼吸系病是威胁人群健康的前3位疾病,循环系病、肿瘤年死亡率居高不下逐步上升,呼吸系病年死亡率有所下降.城区和郊县居民之间主要疾病死亡率和主要疾病相对死亡比的差异,一定程度上反映了人群健康对不同环境胁迫的响应,但随着城市化进程加剧及其不断向郊县扩张,城区居民和郊县居民对环境胁迫的响应趋于一致,这也反映了城区与郊县环境的差别日渐缩小.将常规环境监测数据和历史流行病普查数据结合起来,可揭示环境胁迫对人群健康的累积效应,并为预测潜在环境风险提供基本资料.

【Abstract】 In context of latest urban transforming period during 1990—1999 in Shanghai,mortalities and relative mortality ratios of major diseases of residents were analyzed.Along with routine mortalities of major diseases,an index as relative mortality ratio of major disease(RMR) was specially defined to measure different responses of human health to environmental stresses among citywide,urban and suburban residents.Results showed that annual mortalities of circulation diseases, tumor,respiratory diseases dominated the total proportion of 10 major diseases.Mortalities of circulation diseases and tumor showed the increasing tendency,while mortality of respiratory diseases decreased gradually.Differences of causes of major diseases,mortalities and relative mortality ratios of major diseases between citywide,urban and suburban residents can be partly regarded as different responses of human health to the environmental stresses.However with more intensive urbanization and its expansion to suburb,responses to environmental stresses of urban and suburban residents tend to be consistent,which reflects the shrinking differences in environments of citywide,urban and suburban.It will interpret accumulative effects of environmental stresses on human health and further provide fundamental materials for predicting potential environmental risk in the future to incorporate routine environmental monitoring data and historical epidemic survey data.

【基金】 国家自然科学基金重点资助项目(39930040)
  • 【文献出处】 复旦学报(自然科学版) ,Journal of Fudan University(Natural Science) , 编辑部邮箱 ,2006年06期
  • 【分类号】X503.1
  • 【下载频次】340
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