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基于渔港的渔业管理研究

Study on Fishery Management Based on Fishing Port

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【作者】 韦朋

【导师】 唐议

【作者基本信息】 上海海洋大学, 渔业环境保护与治理, 2019, 硕士

【摘要】 自20世纪90年代中后期以来,我国海洋渔业管理在制度建设上已初步形成以海洋捕捞许可制度为基础,以控制捕捞渔船数量与功率、禁渔区和休渔期制度、捕捞限额制度、渔具使用限制、捕捞对象可捕标准和渔获物幼鱼比例管理等多层面管理相结合的海洋渔业管理制度体系。但在近海地区,渔业资源逐渐仍呈现出优质经济鱼类数量比例下降、种类组成小型化、低龄化、性成熟提早的严峻生物学表现,这也反映出我国渔业资源管理效率需要进一步提升。渔港与渔业的发展相互依托,渔港的类型和规模以及相关设施,对一个国家的海洋生物资源的开发利用率具有重大影响。在渔港进行的渔业的管理对于渔业发展同样可以产生重要影响。近期,与我国沿海渔港有关的问题在渔业发展规划,管理和经济问题上得到了强调,不断推出新政策旨在增加对渔港相关问题的关注。一直以来国内学者对我国渔港管理的研究主要聚焦在对于渔港监督管理机制存在的问题、相关法律法规立法实践、渔港渔船安全管理和防治渔港周边环境污染等方面,但对于基于渔港的渔业管理的研究少有涉及。国外学者则不断探索渔港对于渔业资源可持续的作用,探索如何通过渔港来促进渔业可持续发展。论文通过文献资料分析法、实例分析与比较分析法和社会调查方法,基于实地调研获取的数据(包括沿海11个省份的渔港管理部门工作总结材料,实地调研获取的渔港和渔船的信息,以及各省渔业主管部门对于本省区沿海渔港和渔业管理问题的反馈),对我国基于渔港的渔业管理进行考察,全面评估中国基于渔港的渔业管理,通过挖掘我国基于渔港的渔业管理存在的问题,借鉴发达国家基于渔港的渔业管理的先进经验,提出改善我国基于渔港的渔业管理的建议。文章主要分为六个部分,各部分的主要内容如下:第一部分为引言,主要介绍研究背景、研究目的和意义、国内外研究现状及研究方法和研究框架;第二部分是基于我国渔港的渔业管理主要内容(渔港现状,渔港管理,在渔港采取的近海捕捞渔船管理措施,渔获物上岸的管理)的考察,对每个部分进行论述;第三部分指出我国在这些层面存在的不足,分析问题产生的原因,分别为渔港在渔业管理中的作用未受重视,渔港管理的法律法规不健全,渔获物统计和上岸管理体系缺失,中央和地方政策不一致。第四部分为《港口国措施协定》的主要内容及其发展,再以美国、挪威和加拿大基于渔港的渔业管理的实践案例进行阐述和评价,然后进行总结,分析我国未加入《港口国措施协定》的部分原因,和美国、挪威和加拿大基于渔港的渔业管理的实践案例对我国可提供借鉴的经验和启示。第五部分为改善我国基于渔港的渔业管理的建议,指出加强我国海洋渔业管理的执行,既需要在立法层面上加强和完善与渔业基本法律相配套的执行性法规规章建设,还需要在实践中为管理制度的实施创造基础条件和途径,提出具体建议:加强制度建设,完善顶层设计;加强与规范渔港现代化管理与建设;完善渔船监察体系,加强渔船监督管理;建立有效的渔获物统计与核查体系;构建“大渔政”,实现统一监管;促进公众参与,提升渔业管理透明度。最后为总结部分,回顾研究过程和主要结论,指出本文的创新点和不足之处。从基础设施建设到革新管理方式,提升我国基于渔港的渔业管理水平是一条很重要的道路,提高我国基于渔港的渔业管理水平,将有利于健全我国海洋捕捞业监督管理体系,提升我国海洋捕捞业监督管理的效率。

【Abstract】 Since the mid and late 1990 s,China’s marine fishery management has made some progress in system construction.It has initially formed a multi-level management facility based on the marine fishing licensing system,including the control of the number and power of fishing vessels,the system of closed-off zones and fishing periods,the quota fishing system,the restrictions on the use of fishing gear,the criteria for catching objects and the management of the proportion of young fishes.However,in the offshore areas,fishery resources are still showing a serious biological performance of the lower proportion of high-quality economic fish,miniaturization of species,younger age,and early sexual maturity.To some extent,it reflects that the efficiency of fishery resource management in China needs further upgrade.The development of fishing ports and fisheries depend on each other.The type and scale of fishing ports and related facilities have a major impact on the development and utilization of marine biological resources in a country.The management of fisheries at fishing ports can also have an important impact on fisheries development.The type and scale of the fishing port and related facilities have a major impact on the development and utilization efficiency of a country’s marine living resources.Also,the management of fisheries at fishing ports can exert significant influence on fisheries development.Recently,issues related to Chinese fishing ports have been highlighted in fisheries development planning,management and economy.In China,existing fishing ports suffer from many problems of use and management.The important role of fishing ports in fisheries management has also been neglected,not receiving due attention and practice over time.It is an urgent need to carry out major renovation on the basic system of fisheries management in regard to fishing ports.Recently,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Afairs(MOARA,the new name of MOA after the government institutional restructuring in 2018)of China has come to realize the potential functions which fishing ports have on fisheries management and fisheries economic development,and new policies are being introduced to increase concerns about fishing port-related issues.The researches on fishing port management in our country by domestic scholars have been mainly focused on the problems existing in the supervision and management mechanism of fishing ports,the legislative practice of relevant laws and regulations,the safety management of fishing vessels and the prevention of environmental pollution around fishing ports,but the research on fishery management based on fishing ports.Foreign scholars continue to explore the role of fishing ports in the sustainability of fishery resources and how to promote the sustainable development of fisheries through fishing ports.This paper hopes to explore the problems of fishery management based on fishing ports in China,draw on the advanced experience of fisheries management based on fishing ports in developed countries,and the decision-making mechanism of marine fishery resources management in China.This paper uses literature data analysis,case analysis,comparative analysis methods and social survey methods to investigate the fishery management and comprehensively evaluate the fishery management based on fishing ports in China,based on data obtained from field research(including work summary materials of fishing port management departments in 11 coastal provinces,information on fishing ports and boats obtained in the field research,and feedback from the provincial fishery authorities on the coastal fishing port and fishery management issues in their provinces).Firstly,this paper clarifies the situation of fishing ports in China,including the development history and the statistics and analysis of the number of fishing ports in coastal provinces;fishing port management,including the status quo of fishing port supervision and management agencies and fishing port management;taking measures to manage offshore fishing vessels in fishing ports,including vessel entry and exit visa management methods and law enforcement and supervision by fishery authorities;catch landing management,which includes fishing log management and onshore management;discusses and analyses each part,and points out the shortcomings of fishery management based on fishing ports in China.Then,this paper discusses the main contents and development of the Agreement on Port State Measures,analyses some reasons why China has not joined the Agreement on Port State Measures,and then elaborates and evaluates the practical cases of fishery management based on fishing ports in the United States,Norway and Canada,with a view to providing experience and inspiration for fishery management based on fishing ports in China.Based on the reality of fisheries management in China,this paper discussed the positioning of fishing ports in fisheries management,catch management and data statistics,consistency of fisheries policies and positive prospects.What’s more,challenges,threats and future development directions of fisheries management based on fishing ports in China are pointed out.From infrastructure construction to innovation of management methods,improvement of fisheries management level based on fishing ports in China is an important way,which will help to improve the supervision and management system of China’s marine fishing industry and enhance the efficiency of the supervision and management of China’s marine fishing industry.To this end,suggestions for improving fishery management based on fishing ports in China are put forward: strengthening the top-level design of the system;strengthening and standardizing the modern management and construction of fishing ports;improving the fishing vessel monitoring system and strengthening the supervision and management of fishing vessels;establishing an effective catch statistics and verification system;building a " union fishery administration" to achieve comprehensive supervision;promoting public participation and enhancing the transparency of fishery management.

【关键词】 渔业渔港渔船渔获物管理
【Key words】 Fisheriesfishing portsfishing vesselscatchesfisheries management
  • 【分类号】F326.4
  • 【下载频次】79
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